VISA - refusal | Reasons: Ineligibilities - Labor certification
비자거절, 입국거부 등 사유 - 노동자 관련
ㅣ비자거절, 입국거부 등 VISA or Entry Refusal
다양한 사유로 미국이민법에 의거하여 미국비자신청이 거절되었거나 미국 입국이나 거주에 어려움이 있으실 경우,
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The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) establishes the types of visas available for travel to the United States and what conditions must be met before an applicant can be issued a particular type of visa. The situations which make a visa applicant ineligible for a visa, called visa ineligibilities, are found in the INA, and other immigration laws. The INA also contains provisions for certain ineligible applicants to apply for waivers of their ineligibility.
When a visa applicant applies for a visa, a consular officer at a U.S. embassy or consulate outside the United States determines whether the applicant is qualified, under all applicable U.S. laws, to receive the particular visa applied for. Applicants found qualified are issued visas after all necessary processing is completed. However, when the consular officer determines that the applicant is ineligible to receive a visa, the visa application is denied. The applicant is informed verbally and in writing of the reason for denial based on the applicable section(s) of law.
Reasons for Visa Denials
: Section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act
(a) Classes of Aliens Ineligible for Visas or Admission.-Except as otherwise provided in this Act, aliens who are inadmissible under the following paragraphs are ineligible to receive visas and ineligible to be admitted to the United States:
- Health-related grounds.
- Criminal and related grounds.
- Security and related grounds.
- Public charge.
- Labor certification and qualifications for certain immigrants.
- Illegal entrants and immigration violators.
- Documentation requirements .
- Ineligible for citizenship.
- ALIENS PREVIOUSLY REMOVED.
5. Labor certification and qualifications for certain immigrants.
(A) Labor certification.-
(i) In general.-Any alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing skilled or unskilled labor is inadmissible, unless the Secretary of Labor has determined and certified to the Secretary of State and the Attorney General that-
(I) there are not sufficient workers who are able, willing, qualified (or equally qualified in the case of an alien described in clause (ii)) and available at the time of application for a visa and admission to the United States and at the place where the alien is to perform such skilled or unskilled labor, and
(II) the employment of such alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of workers in the United States similarly employed.
(ii) Certain aliens subject to special rule.-For purposes of clause (i)(I), an alien described in this clause is an alien who-
(I) is a member of the teaching profession, or
(II) has exceptional ability in the sciences or the arts.
(iii) PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES-
(I) In general.-A certification made under clause (i) with respect to a professional athlete shall remain valid with respect to the athlete after the athlete changes employer, if the new employer is a team in the same sport as the team which employed the athlete when the athlete first applied for certification.
(II) Definition.-For purposes of subclause (I), the term "professional athlete" means an individual who is employed as an athlete by-
(aa) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage; or
(bb) any minor league team that is affiliated with such an association.
(iv) LONG DELAYED ADJUSTMENT APPLICANTS- A certification made under clause (i) with respect to an individual whose petition is covered by section 204(j) shall remain valid with respect to a new job accepted by the individual after the individual changes jobs or employers if the new job is in the same or a similar occupational classification as the job for which the certification was issued.
(B) Unqualified physicians.-An alien who is a graduate of a medical school not accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education (regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States) and who is coming to the United States principally to perform services as a member of the medical profession is inadmissible, unless the alien (i) has passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examination (or an equivalent examination as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services) and (ii) is competent in oral and written English. For purposes of the previous sentence, an alien who is a graduate of a medical school shall be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners if the alien was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on January 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date.
(C)Uncertified foreign health-care workers Subject to subsection (r), any alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing labor as a health-care worker, other than a physician, is excludable unless the alien presents to the consular officer, or, in the case of an adjustment of status, the Attorney General, a certificate from the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools, or a certificate from an equivalent independent credentialing organization approved by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, verifying that-
(i) the alien's education, training, license, and experience-
(I) meet all applicable statutory and regulatory requirements for entry into the United States under the classification specified in the application;
(II) are comparable with that required for an American health-care worker of the same type; and
(III) are authentic and, in the case of a license, unencumbered;
(ii) the alien has the level of competence in oral and written English considered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, to be appropriate for health care work of the kind in which the alien will be engaged, as shown by an appropriate score on one or more nationally recognized, commercially available, standardized assessments of the applicant's ability to speak and write; and
(iii) if a majority of States licensing the profession in which the alien intends to work recognize a test predicting the success on the profession's licensing or certification examination, the alien has passed such a test, or has passed such an examination.
For purposes of clause (ii), determination of the standardized tests required and of the minimum scores that are appropriate are within the sole discretion of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and are not subject to further administrative or judicial review.
(D)Application of grounds.-The grounds of inadmissibility of aliens under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall apply to immigrants seeking admission or adjustment of status under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 203(b).