VISA - refusal | Reasons: Ineligibilities - Removal
비자거절, 입국거부 등 사유 - 추방
ㅣ비자거절, 입국거부 등 VISA or Entry Refusal
다양한 사유로 미국이민법에 의거하여 미국비자신청이 거절되었거나 미국 입국이나 거주에 어려움이 있으실 경우,
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The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) establishes the types of visas available for travel to the United States and what conditions must be met before an applicant can be issued a particular type of visa. The situations which make a visa applicant ineligible for a visa, called visa ineligibilities, are found in the INA, and other immigration laws. The INA also contains provisions for certain ineligible applicants to apply for waivers of their ineligibility.
When a visa applicant applies for a visa, a consular officer at a U.S. embassy or consulate outside the United States determines whether the applicant is qualified, under all applicable U.S. laws, to receive the particular visa applied for. Applicants found qualified are issued visas after all necessary processing is completed. However, when the consular officer determines that the applicant is ineligible to receive a visa, the visa application is denied. The applicant is informed verbally and in writing of the reason for denial based on the applicable section(s) of law.
Reasons for Visa Denials
: Section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act
(a) Classes of Aliens Ineligible for Visas or Admission.-Except as otherwise provided in this Act, aliens who are inadmissible under the following paragraphs are ineligible to receive visas and ineligible to be admitted to the United States:
- Health-related grounds.
- Criminal and related grounds.
- Security and related grounds.
- Public charge.
- Labor certification and qualifications for certain immigrants.
- Illegal entrants and immigration violators.
- Documentation requirements .
- Ineligible for citizenship.
- ALIENS PREVIOUSLY REMOVED.
9. ALIENS PREVIOUSLY REMOVED.
(A) Certain aliens previously removed.-
(i) Arriving aliens.-Any alien who has been ordered removed under section 235(b)(1) or at the end of proceedings under section 240 initiated upon the alien's arrival in the United States and who again seeks admission within 5 years of the date of such removal (or within 20 years in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible.
(ii) Other aliens.-Any alien not described in clause (i) who-
(I) has been ordered removed under section 240 or any other provision of law, or
(II) departed the United States while an order of removal was outstanding, and who seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal (or within 20 years of such date in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible.
(iii) Exception.-Clauses (i) and (ii) shall not apply to an alien seeking admission within a period if, prior to the date of the alien's reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be admitted from foreign contiguous territory, the Attorney General has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission.
(B) ALIENS UNLAWFULLY PRESENT.-
(i) In general.-Any alien (other than an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) who-
(I) was unlawfully present in the United States for a period of more than 180 days but less than 1 year, voluntarily departed the United States (whether or not pursuant to section 244(e)) prior to the commencement of proceedings under section 235(b)(1) or section 240, and again seeks admission within 3 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal, or
(II) has been unlawfully present in the United States for one year or more, and who again seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal from the United States, is inadmissible.
(ii) Construction of unlawful presence.-For purposes of this paragraph, an alien is deemed to be unlawfully present in the United States if the alien is present in the United States after the expiration of the period of stay authorized by the Attorney General or is present in the United States without being admitted or paroled.
(I) Minors.-No period of time in which an alien is under 18 years of age shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (I).
(II) Asylees.-No period of time in which an alien has a bona fide application for asylum pending under section 208 shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (i) unless the alien during such period was employed without authorization in the United States.
(III) Family unity.-No period of time in which the alien is a beneficiary of family unity protection pursuant to section 301 of the Immigration Act of 1990 shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (I).
(IV) Battered women and children.-Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien who would be described in paragraph (6)(A)(ii) "if violation of the terms of the alien's nonimmigrant visa" were substituted for "unlawful entry into the United States" in subclause (III) of that paragraph.
(V) VICTIMS OF A SEVERE FORM OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS- Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien who demonstrates that the severe form of trafficking (as that term is defined in section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7102)) was at least one central reason for the alien's unlawful presence in the United States.
(iv) Tolling for good cause.-In the case of an alien who-
(I) has been lawfully admitted or paroled into the United States,
(II) has filed a nonfrivolous application for a change or extension of status before the date of expiration of the period of stay authorized by the Attorney General, and
(III) has not been employed without authorization in the United States before or during the pendency of such application,the calculation of the period of time specified in clause (i)(I) shall be tolled during the pendency of such application, but not to exceed 120 days.
(v) Waiver.-The Attorney General has sole discretion to waive clause (i) in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse or son or daughter of a United States citizen or of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the refusal of admission to such immigrant alien would result in extreme hardship to the citizen or lawfully resident spouse or parent of such alien. No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision or action by the Attorney General regarding a waiver under this clause.
(C) Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violations.-
(i) In general.-Any alien who-
(I) has been unlawfully present in the United States for an aggregate period of more than 1 year, or
(II) has been ordered removed under section 235(b)(1), section 240, or any other provision of law, and who enters or attempts to reenter the United States without being admitted is inadmissible.
(ii) Exception.-Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien seeking admission more than 10 years after the date of the alien's last departure from the United States if, prior to the alien's reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be readmitted from a foreign contiguous territory, the Secretary of Homeland Security has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission.
(iii) WAIVER- The Secretary of Homeland Security may waive the application of clause (i) in the case of an alien who is a VAWA self-petitioner if there is a connection between--
(I) the alien's battering or subjection to extreme cruelty; and
(II) the alien's removal, departure from the United States, reentry or reentries into the United States; or attempted reentry into the United States.